The United States faces few good choices in its dealings with Afghanistan and Pakistan, says a longtime expert in the region, and must take a “longer view” than what has been exhibited in a decade plus of conflict.
David L. Phillips believes violent conflict is not inevitable. As director of Columbia’s Program on Peace-building and Rights, Phillips’s office is on the Morningside campus, but his real work takes place in trouble spots across the globe.
In the late 1980s, Timothy Frye, a recent Middlebury College graduate with a B.A. in Russian language and literature, went for the first time to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, where Mikhail Gorbachev had just come to power.
Two fossil fuels powered the rise of the modern industrial state. But only one—the hard, chunky rock extracted from the ground by legions of coal workers—has been a force for the development of democracy.